Ablehnen des Eröffnungswurfes – California Rule[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Diese. Backgammon (Rules of the game) | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Hamilton, Robert, Backgammon, Rules of the Game, Photo vorhanden. Goren Norfolk, Tim, Backgammon, Rules, Strategy, Winning Play, Photo.
BackgammonAblehnen des Eröffnungswurfes – California Rule[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Diese. Welcome to Backgammon - Lord of the Board - If you LOVE playing online Backgammon with friends then you have come to the right place! Even if you are a. Backgammon rules: Erfahren Sie mehr über den Ursprung der Wörter auf unserem EVS Translations Blog.
Backgammon Rules Categories VideoBackgammon Rules, explained by Grandmaster Marc Olsen
Aus rechtlichen GrГnden Blz N26 Google Play in Deutschland keine Gnk Apps? - InhaltsverzeichnisWeitere Verdopplungen im selben Spiel werden Re-Doppel genannt.
In this area too, the lack of information is huge. There is nothing more exciting than receiving the backgammon set that you have ordered and that it fully meets your expectations.
In short, Backgammon Rules is here to advise you and help you make the right choice in every step of your backgammon journey. Backgammon is particularly interesting during tournaments.
Hundreds of players from every part of the world gather to compete against each other and also earn good money.
For the novice player, this is a world that may seem somewhat closed and the lack of communication means that you can miss a tournament while it is near your home.
To help you discover this fascinating world, I invite you to follow me during the tournaments I take part of.
As a result, you will have the opportunity to know where the best backgammon tournaments are and also to take part.
When the dice have matching numbers, it is known as a double. The player rolling a double gets to make four moves, instead of two.
The opponent must attempt to re-enter the checker on the bar on their next roll. No other plays are possible until the checker is re-entered.
There is no limit to the number of checkers that can be sitting on the bar. The doubling cube is a specific game piece that can be used at any point in the game to increase the stakes.
Before a player begins their next turn by rolling the dice, they can propose to increase the current stakes of the game. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game.
In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.
A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.
Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.
PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet. Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators.
Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.
The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.
It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'.
There are 24 triangles on the board known as points. The checkers are color coded, 15 of one color and 15 of another. Each player will set their board according to the diagram below.
This is the starting setup of the game, and players will strive to move all their pieces to their home board then successfully bare all their pieces off the board.
To start both players will roll one die, the player that rolled the higher die goes first. Usually you will roll two dice but since each player rolled one die each, the player with the higher roll will move first based off the die that they rolled and the die the opponent rolled.
From there players alternate turns accordingly. The bar is the middle crease of the board, where it folds in half.
You can hit more than one of your opponents pieces in a turn. Now the opponent with the piece on the bar cannot make any other move until their pieces are off of the bar.
They must re-enter the board on their opponents home board. When re-entering the game from the bar, you can use your whole turn.Der Anbieter der Verdopplung kann wie bei einer normalen Verdopplung annehmen oder ablehnen. Lehnt Rizk Casino Bonus Gegner das Angebot ab, so wird ihm das Spiel als verloren angerechnet. Backgammonregeln lernen und einen Online- Backgammontutorenkurs, damit Sie praktisches Wissen davon bekommen können, wie das Spiel funktioniert.